The indigenous Prussians
vImmigration of Stone age Indoeuropeans from central Europe to Bjelo- and
Central Russia, confirmed by Baltic topographical and hydrographical names.
During the Bronze age the Old Baltic culture separates into Eastern
Balts Lithuanians, Latvians) and Western Balts (Prussians, Curonians).
During the Iron age individual Prussian tribes develop - Sambia, Natangia,
Galindia and Sudavia.
The Greek Herodot writes about the Amber rich north of Europe.
Gothic people push eastwards from the area of the lower river Weichsel to
the river Passarge.
The Eastern Goths subjugate the Prussians of Sambia.
A Slavonic expansion pushes the Balts to the north.
Friendly contacts of the Prussians with Theoderich, king of the Eastern
Goths of Ravenna.
Repeated attacks by northern people into Prussia.
Masovians move into the area of the central Weichsel which was abandoned by
Boleslaw I. of Poland makes frequently war to the Prussians, Selencians and
Pommeranians which last until 1025.
Bishop Adalbert von Prag missions in Prussia, however due to his involvement
with Boleslaw I. of Poland whose hostile record is well remembered, he is
ordered to leave the country. Adalbert ignores the warning and when he returns
he is killed on April 23.
1107 - 1115
Boleslaw III. attacks Southern Prussia.
1147 - 1161
Boleslaw IV. resumes the agressions of his predecessors on Prussia.
The Prussian population is estimated to count 200,000 persons. The Teutonic
Order will settle later around 130,000 foreigners.
The Cistersians monk Christian is ordained as the first Bishop in Prussia
although Prussia has not yet been conquered.
1216 / 1217
Revenge attacks by Prussian tribes on Masovian territory.
A Polish crusading army expells the Prussians from their homeland in Kulm
The Polish Duke Conrad of Masovia calls for help against Prussians
incursions at the Highmaster of the Teutonic Order and promises as reward the
Prussian lands of Kulmer and Löbau.
Emperor Frederic II. entitles with the “Golden bull” the Teutonic Order to
conquer and missionize the Land Prusa.
Hermann Balk lands with delegates of the Teutonic Order at the Western bank
of the river Weichsel.
20,000 crusaders led by Heinrichs III. von Meißen conquers Prussian
settlements around the area of the Old Truso next to the city of Elbing.
The entire military forces of the Teutonic Order take the strategic
important fortification of Honeda, destroy it and build a castle with the name
First coordinated defense efforts by the Prussian tribes to counter the
attacks of the Teutonic Order.
The conquered Prussian tribes of Pomesania, Warmia, Pogesania,
North-Natangia and Bartia are forced to sign a treaty with the Order at
Christburg, loosing property and many basic rights.
King Ottokar of.Böhmen raids with 60.000 warriors through Sambia. One year
later he founds the city of Königsberg.
Rise of the Sambians, Nadrovians, Schalovians and Sudavians against the
The Teutonic Order is defeated by the Prussian Herkus Monte at Pokarben.
Submission of Warmia, Natangia and Bartia by the Order.
Herkus Monte is captured by treason and hanged in the forest.
Skomand of Sudavia capitulates as the last Prussian freedom fighter ending a
53 year battle. Many Prussians flee to Lithuania and Masowia.
High Master Siegfried von Feuchtwangen declares the use of the Prussian
language illegal and punishes the native speakers severely.
The Great Pestulence is carried into Prussia from the Orient.
The battle of the Teutonic Order at Tannenberg against a Polisch-lithuaunian
army results in a defeat for the Order and leaves 8.000 people dead.
1. Peace treaty of Thorn makes the Order to give up the territory of
Samogaiten and forces to pay 100.000 bohemian Gröscher to Poland.
1431 - 1433
Raids by Poland and by Hussites into Prussia.
1453 - 1466
13 year war between the Order and Poland.
2. Peace treaty of Thorn with the loss of West-Prussia. Königsberg becomes
the Seat of the High Master.
The treaty of Krakau ends the war between the Teutonic Order and Poland.
Prussia becomes a duchy.
Duke Albrecht founds the Königsberg University.
The first book in the Prussian language is printed in Königsberg.
Brandenburg inherits the Duchy of Prussia.
King Friedrich I. crowns himself in Königsberg as King in Prussia, not as
King of Prussia.
King Friedrich II. degrades Prussia to a province, but uses the name
„Prussia“ for his entire possessions.
2nd Prussian coronation in Königsberg
Begin of World War II. in (East)Prussia.
Expulsion of the population of (East)Prussia and placing of the
territory under the temporary administration of Poland, Russia and Lithuania.